The Music Cognition Laboratory

Tonality, Pitch, Harmony, Melody

Wen, O. X., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2017). Real-time responses to Stravinsky’s Symphonies of Wind Instruments: Perception of internal repetition and musical interest. Music Perception, 35, 60-76. [PDF]

Large, E. W., Kim, J. C., Flaig, N. K., Bharucha, J. J., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2016). A neurodynamic account of musical tonality. Music Perception, 33, 319-331. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L. (2015). Statistics, structure, and style in music. Music Perception, 33, 20-31. [PDF]

Lerdahl, F., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2007). Modeling tonal tension. Music Perception, 24, 329 - 366. [PDF]

Toiviainen, P., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2003). Measuring and modeling real-time responses to music: Tonality induction. Perception, 32, 741-766. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L., & Toiviainen, P. (2001). The musical mind: Tonal cognition. In R. J. Zatorre and I. Peretz (Eds.) The Biological Foundations of Music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 930, 77-91. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1998). Perceived triad distance: Evidence supporting the psychological reality of neo-Riemannian transformations. Neo-Riemannian Transformations Mathematics and Applications, Journal of Music Theory, 42, 265-281. (D. Clampitt, J. Clough, R. Cohn, and J. Douthett, Eds.) [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1998). Topic in music: An empirical study of memorability, openness, and emotion in Mozart's Quintet in C major and Beethoven's String Quartet in A minor. Music Perception, 16, 119-134. (M. Besson and A. Friederici, Eds.) [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1996). A perceptual analysis of Mozart's Piano Sonata, K. 282: Segmentation, tension and musical ideas. Music Perception , 13, 401 - 432. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1995). Music psychology and music theory: Problems and prospects. Music Theory Spectrum, 17, 53-80. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1995). Effects of musical context on similarity and expectancy. Systematische Musikwissenschaft (Systematic Musicology), 3, 211-250. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1997) Effects of perceptual organization and musical form on melodic expectancies. In M. Leman (Ed.), Music, Gestalt, and computing: Studies in cognitive and systematic musicology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1991). Memory for musical surface. Memory & Cognition, 19, 401-411. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1990). Tonal hierarchies and rare intervals in music cognition. Music Perception, 7, 309-324. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., Sandell, G.J., & Sergeant, D.C. (1987). The perception of tone hierarchies and mirror forms in twelve-tone serial music. Music Perception, 5, 67-113. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. & Schmuckler, M.A. (1986). The Petroushka chord: A perceptual investigation. Music Perception, 4, 153-184. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. & Castellano, M.A. (1983). Dynamic processes in music perception. Memory & Cognition, 11, 325-334. [PDF]

Bharucha, J.J., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1983) The representation of harmonic structure in music: Hierarchies of stability as a function of context. Cognition, 13, 63-102. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., Bharucha, J.J., & Castellano, M.A. (1982). Key distance effects on perceived harmonic structure in music. Perception & Psychophysics, 32, 96-108. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., & Kessler, E.J. (1982). Tracing the dynamic changes in perceived tonal organization in a spatial map of musical keys. Psychological Review, 89, 334-368. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., Bharucha, J.J., & Kessler, E.J. (1982). Perceived harmonic structure of chords in three related musical keys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 24-36. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. & Shepard, R.N. (1979). Quantification of the hierarchy of tonal functions within the diatonic context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 579-594. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1979). The psychological representation of musical pitch in a tonal context. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 346-384. [PDF]

Popular music

Krumhansl, C. L. (2017). Listening niches across a century of popular music. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:431. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00431. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L., & Zupnick, J. A. (2013). Cascading ''reminiscence bumps'' in popular music. Psychological Science, 24 (10), 2057-2068. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L. (2010). Plink: ''Thin slices'' of music. Music Perception, 27, 337-354. [PDF]

Timing, Meter, and Rhythm

Wen, O. X., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2019). Perception of Pitch and Time in the Structurally Isomorphic Standard Rhythmic and Iatonic Scale Patterns. Music & Science, 2, 1-24. [PDF]

Hove, M. J., Spivey, M. J., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2010). Compatibility of motion facilitates visuomotor synchronization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1525-1534. [PDF]

Hove, M. J., Keller, P. E., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2007). Sensorimotor synchronization with chords containing tone-onset asynchronies. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 699-708. [PDF]

Hannon, E. E., Snyder, J. S., Eerola, T., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2004). The role of melodic and temporal cues in perceiving musical meter. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 956-974. [PDF]

Snyder, J., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2001). Tapping to ragtime: Cues to pulse-finding. Music Perception, 18, 455-489. [PDF]

Palmer, C., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1990). Mental representations of musical meter. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 728-741. [PDF]

Clarke, E.F., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1990). Perceiving musical time. Music Perception, 7, 213-252. [PDF]

Palmer, C., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1987). Pitch and temporal contributions to musical phrase perception: Effects of harmony, performance timing, and familiarity. Perception & Psychophysics, 41, 505-518. [PDF]

Palmer, C., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1987). Independent temporal and pitch structures in perception of musical phrases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 116-126. [PDF]


Huang, J., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2011). Effects of stage behavior, expertise, composer, and modality of presentation on piano performance evaluation. Musicae Scientiae, 15, 343. [PDF]

Vines, B. W., Krumhansl, C. L., Wanderley, M. M., Dalka, I. M., & Levitin, D. J. (2010). Music to my eyes: Cross-modal interactions in the perception of emotions in musical performance. Cognition, 118, 157-170. [PDF]

Vines, B. W., Krumhansl, C. L., Wanderley, M. M., & Levitin, D. J. (2006). Cross-modal interactions in the perception of musical performance. Cognition, 101, 80-113. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., & Schenck, D.L. (1997) Can dance reflect the structural and expressive qualities of music? A perceptual experiment on Balanchine's choreography of Mozart's Divertimento No. 15. Musicae Scientiae, 1, 63-85. [PDF]


Hove, M. J., Sutherland, M., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2010). Ethnicity effects in relative pitch. Psychological Bulletin and Review, 17, 310-316. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L. (2000). Tonality induction: A statistical approach applied cross-culturally. Music Perception, 17, 499-517. Special issue on Tonality Induction, M. Leman and P. Vos (Eds.) [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., Toivanen, P., Eerola, T., Toivianinen, P., Järvinen, T., & Louhivuori, J. (2000). Cross-cultural music cognition: Cognitive methodology applied to North Sami yoiks. Cognition, 76, 13-58. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., Louhivuori, J., Toivianinen, P., Jävinen, T., & and Eerola, T. (1999). Melodic expectation in Finnish folk hymns: Convergence of behavioral, statistical, and computational approaches. Music Perception, 17, 151-196. [PDF]

Perlman, M., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1996). An experimental study of internalized interval standards of Javanese and Western musicians. Music Perception, 14, 95-116. [PDF]

Castellano, M.A., Bharucha, J.J., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1984). Tonal hierarchies in the music of North India. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 394-412. [PDF]


Iverson, P., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1993) Isolating the dynamic attributes of musical timbre. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 94, 2595-2603. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., and Iverson, P. (1992) Perceptual interactions between musical pitch and timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 739-751. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1989) Why is musical timbre so hard to understand? In S. Nielzen and O. Olsson (Eds.), Structure and perception of electroacoustic sound and music. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [PDF]


Jusczyk, P.W., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1993) Pitch and rhythmic patterns affecting infants' sensitivity to musical phrase structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 627-640. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L., & Jusczyk, P.W. (1990) Infants' perception of phrase structure in music. Psychological Science, 1, 70-73. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. & Keil, F.C. (1982) Acquisition of the hierarchy of tonal functions in music. Memory & Cognition, 10, 243-251. [PDF]


Isbilen, E. S., & Krumhansl, C. L. (2016). The color of music: emotion-mediated associations to Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier, Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 26, 149-161. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L., & Lerdahl, F. (2010). Musical tension. In F. Bacci and D, Melcher (Eds.). Art and the Senses. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L. (2002). Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 45-50. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1997) An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology. Canadian Journal of Psychology (M.A. Schmuckler, Ed.), 51, 36-52. [PDF]


Krumhansl, C. L., & Cuddy, L. L. (2010). A theory of tonal hierarchies in music. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. New York: Springer. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L. (2005). The cognition of tonality: as we know it today. Journal of New Music Research, 33, 253-268. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C. L. (2000) Rhythm and pitch in music cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 159- 179. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1991). Music psychology: Tonal structures in perception and memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 277-303. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1985). Perceiving tonal structure in music. American Scientist, 73, 371-378. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1983). Perceptual structures for tonal music. Music Perception, 1, 24-58. [PDF]

Mathematical psychology

Luce, R.D., & Krumhansl, C.L. (1988). Measurement, scaling, and psychophysics. In R.C. Atkinson, R.J. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, and R.D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens' handbook of experimental psychology, 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons. [PDF]

Krumhansl, C.L. (1978). Concerning the applicability of geometric models to similarity data: The interrelationship between similarity and spatial density. Psychological Review, 85, 445- 463. [PDF]